British civil administration in Palestine operated from until During its existence the territory was known simply as Palestine, but, in later years, a variety of other names and descriptors have been used, including Mandatory or Mandate Palestine, the British Mandate of Palestine and British Palestine.
This is a profoundly counter-cultural book, unabashedly and defiantly so. It takes on the prevailing truisms of our time across the entire political spectrum: Jacob Burckhardt —97 also strenuously challenged the notion, already widespread in his time and held even more tenaciously today, that the essence of history for the past four hundred years has been the march of progress and enlightenment.
In this book, composed of notes and manuscript fragments for lectures he delivered at the University of Basel between andBurckhardt carried on the debate against the numerous historians and commentators from Voltaire onward who insisted on judging the past against the standards of rationalism and liberalism that arose in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Every historical epoch has its own intrinsic meaning and its own contribution to make to the collected intellectual and artistic treasures of humankind.
The task of the historian, far from judging all things by virtue of their contribution to modernity, is to explore every corner of the past with an appreciative eye Edition: By taking this stand, Burckhardt emerged in most refreshing contrast with his contemporaries and many of his successors.
For what he developed was nothing short of a psychology of historiography. The historian is to observe, contemplate, and enjoy the incredibly glorious richness of the human experience.
He is to look for human greatness and creativity everywhere, even in periods that might seem alien and distant from him. His spirit ought to be one of enquiry, wonder, and empathy. Insofar as he allows himself to make moral judgments about the past, these judgments should be based not on contemporary verities but on more universal values.
Thus, we may judge Tamerlane for his hideous massacres of innocent women and children, but it makes no sense to judge Charlemagne for his authoritarianism. Beyond all this, the historian is to search everywhere for the priceless achievements of the human spirit that transcend politics and economics—those great works of artistic and literary beauty and power, and those deeds of courage, nobility, and grandeur—which grace the history of civilization and inspire later generations.
Despite his injunction not to judge the past, Burckhardt did not hesitate to judge the present, with all of its smugness and self-confidence.
Like Alexis de Tocqueville, he had deep misgivings about the advent of popular egalitarian democracy, which he believed would lead to ever higher levels of vulgarity, the simplification and corruption of culture and politics, and eventually the tyranny of demagogues. The main problem with popular democratic culture was its deification of equality as the ruling principle in all of life.
It was one thing to argue that all men should be equal before the law, an idea Burckhardt did not find problematic, but quite another to argue that all men are equal, and even more pernicious to suggest that all beliefs, opinions, and ways of life are of equal worth, a reductio ad absurdum that Burckhardt believed would lead to the death of culture and the return of barbarism.
Burckhardt was equally harsh toward another idol of the nineteenth Edition: Burckhardt was appalled at the human, cultural, and environmental costs of this ever more voracious Behemoth.
Late in the nineteenth century, he wondered what would have happened to the earth if capitalism, industrialization, and science had begun their joint work three or four centuries earlier.
What would be left by now? The new paternal state, despite its benevolent trappings, carried the potential for the unlimited exercise of power and despotism. With such barriers to state power as the Church and the aristocracy weakened by the advance of popular democracy, egalitarianism, and industrialization, it seemed to Burckhardt only a matter of time before state power would be put in the service of tyranny.
Millions see democracy, capitalism, consumerism, and technology as unlimited boons, and have no tolerance for anyone who might raise troublesome questions about these forces.
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· Our United Kingdom operations represented approximately 50% of international revenues in both the first quarter of and Additionally, our China Company-owned restaurant operations represented approximately 26% of international revenues in both the first quarter of and rutadeltambor.com Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (3 January – 8 October ) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from to , and as Leader of the Labour Party from to rutadeltambor.com Public Health Classics Brown review measures to improve public health in England and Wales in the 19th century, with special reference to the Public Health Act of , of which extracts are reproduced below.
that preventive measures were required for reasons of humanity.
· Analysing the role of climate litigation in Australia, the United States and to a limited extent, the United Kingdom reveals that lawsuits seek to redress the ‘institutional failure’ of legislative and regulatory bodies through the rutadeltambor.com The Reasons for the Ineffectiveness of the Public Health Act of the United Kingdom PAGES 1.
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