Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Agesin which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.
Simple arithmetic forecast that Henry VII would last no more than a decade and that the Battle of Bosworth Field was nothing more than another of the erratic swings of the military pendulum in the struggle between the house of York and the house of Lancaster.
What gave Henry Tudor victory in was not so much personal charisma as the fact that key noblemen deserted Richard III at the moment of his greatest need, that Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Stanley and his brother Sir William stood aside during most of the battle in order to be on the winning team, and that Louis XI of France supplied the Lancastrian forces with 1, mercenary troops.
Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, was born to Catherine of Valoiswidowed queen of Henry Vby her clerk of the wardrobe, Owen Tudorand the precise marital status of their relationship has never been established. Had quality of Plantagenet blood, not military conquest, been the essential condition of monarchy, Edward, earl of Warwick, the year-old nephew of Edward IVwould have sat upon the throne.
Might, not soiled right, had won out on the high ground at Bosworth Field, and Henry VII claimed his title by conquest.
The new king wisely sought to fortify his doubtful genealogical pretension, however, first by parliamentary acclamation and then by royal marriage. The day was coming when the successful prince would be more praised than the heroic monarch and the solvent sovereign more admired than the pious one.
Henry Tudor was probably no better or worse than the first Lancastrian, Henry IV; they both worked diligently at their royal craft and had to fight hard to keep their crowns, but the seventh Henry achieved what the fourth had not—a secure and permanent dynasty—because England in was moving into a period of unprecedented economic growth and social change.
Economy and society By the kingdom had begun to recover from the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late 14th century.
As the 15th century came to a close, the rate of population growth began to increase and continued to rise throughout the following century. The populationwhich in may have dropped as low as 2. More people meant more mouths to feed, more backs to cover, and more vanity to satisfy.
In response, yeoman farmers, gentleman sheep growers, urban cloth manufacturers, and merchant adventurers produced a social and economic revolution.
By they were a chartered organization with a legal monopoly of the woolen cloth trade, and, largely as a consequence of their political and international importance, Henry successfully negotiated the Intercursus Magnus, a highly favourable commercial treaty between England and the Low Countries.
As landlords increased the size of their flocks to the point that ruminants outnumbered human beings 3 to 1 and as clothiers grew rich on the wool trade, inflation injected new life into the economy.
England was caught up in a vast European spiral of rising prices, declining real wages, and cheap money. Between andprices in England doubled, and they doubled again in the next generation.
In the cost of wheat was what it had been in ; by it had tripled. Contemporaries blamed inflation on human greed and only slowly began to perceive that rising prices were the result of inflationary pressures brought on by the increase in population, international war, and the flood of gold and silver arriving from the New World.
Inflation and the wool trade together created an economic and social upheaval. A surfeit of land, a labour shortage, low rents, and high wages, which had prevailed throughout the early 15th century as a consequence of economic depression and reduced population, were replaced by a land shortage, a labour surplus, high rents, and declining wages.
The landlord, who a century before could find neither tenants nor labourers for his land and had left his fields fallow, could now convert his meadows into sheep runs. His rents and profits soared; his need for labour declined, for one shepherd and his dog could do the work of half a dozen men who had previously tilled the same field.
Slowly the medieval system of land tenure and communal farming broke down. The common land of the manor was divided up and fenced in, and the peasant farmer who held his tenure either by copy a document recorded in the manor court or by unwritten custom was evicted.
The total extent of enclosure and eviction is difficult to assess, but, between andin 34 counties more thanacreshectaresor about 2. Statistics, however, are deceptive regarding both the emotional impact and the extent of change.
The most disturbing aspect of the land revolution was not the emergence of a vagrant and unemployable labour force for whom society felt no social responsibility but an unprecedented increase in what men feared most—change.
Farming techniques were transformed, the gap between rich and poor increased, the timeless quality of village life was upset, and, on all levels of society, old families were being replaced by new.
The beneficiaries of change, as always, were the most grasping, the most ruthless, and the best educated segments of the population: Equally dangerous was the persistent myth that the younger of the two princes murdered in the Tower of London had escaped his assassin and that the earl of Warwick had escaped his jailers.
The existence of pretenders acted as a catalyst for further baronial discontent and Yorkist aspirationsand in John de la Pole, a nephew of Edward IV by his sister Elizabeth, with the support of 2, mercenary troops paid for with Burgundian gold, landed in England to support the pretensions of Lambert Simnelwho passed himself off as the authentic earl of Warwick.
Again Henry Tudor was triumphant in war; at the Battle of Stokede la Pole was killed and Simnel captured and demoted to a scullery boy in the royal kitchen.
Ten years later Henry had to do it all over again, this time with a handsome Flemish lad named Perkin Warbeckwho for six years was accepted in Yorkist circles in Europe as the real Richard IV, brother of the murdered Edward V. Warbeck tried to take advantage of Cornish anger against heavy royal taxation and increased government efficiency and sought to lead a Cornish army of social malcontents against the Tudor throne.
It was a measure of the new vigour and popularity of the Tudor monarchy, as well as the support of the gentry, that social revolution and further dynastic war were total failures, and Warbeck found himself in the Tower along with the earl of Warwick.
In the end both men proved too dangerous to live, even in captivity, and in they were executed. The policy of dynastic extermination did not cease with the new century. Financial policy It was not enough for Henry VII to secure his dynasty; he also had to reestablish the financial credit of his crown and reassert the authority of royal law.
Medieval kings had traditionally lived off four sources of nonparliamentary income: The first Tudor was no different from his Yorkist or medieval predecessors; he was simply more ruthless and successful in demanding every penny that was owed him.
To these essentially statutory steps he added efficiency of rent collection. The increase in customs and land revenues was applauded, for it meant fewer parliamentary subsidies and fit the medieval formula that kings should live on their own, not parliamentary, income.Full text of "Illustrations, historical and genealogical, of King James's Irish army list, " See other formats.
Chapter 13 Key Terms. STUDY. PLAY. Stadtholder. Hereditary Chief Executives. This was a military alliance that was created in by all of the major European nations except for France. The purpose of the alliance was to prevent France from dominating Europe.
Peter and Ivan's sister who ruled as regent till , when Peters followers. Peter I or Peter the Great, –, czar of Russia (–), major figure in the development of imperial Russia.
Early Life Peter was the youngest child of . The changes came into effect across the Commonwealth realms on 26 March , after legislation was made according to each realm's constitution.
She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. He is currently 24th in the line of succession to the British throne, and he is also the senior male.
Moved The document has moved here. Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex (for people born before October ), The individual could have relied on inheritance, statute, election (by Parliament or by another body), The changes came into effect across the Commonwealth realms on 26 March , after legislation was made according to each realm's.