Early development[ edit ] Generally, Irish nationalism is regarded as having emerged following the Renaissance revival of the concept of the patria and the religious struggle between the ideology of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. This vision sought to overcome the old ethnic divide between Gaeil the native Irish and Gaill the Normans which had been a feature of Irish life since the 12th century. Protestantism in England introduced a religious element to the 16th century Tudor conquest of Irelandas many of the native Gaels and Hiberno-Normans remained Catholic.
History[ edit ] The political relationship between England and Ireland dates from the 12th century with the establishment of the Lordship of Ireland. After almost four centuries of the Lordship, the declaration of the independence of the Church of England from papal supremacy and the rejection of the authority of the Holy See required the creation of a new basis to legitimise the continued rule of the English monarch in Ireland.
Both parliaments later passed the Acts of Union by which a new state was created - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Intwenty-six counties of Ireland gained autonomy from the U. The Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth of Nations. The remaining six counties of the island of Ireland constituted the territory of Northern Ireland. Today, unionism is almost exclusively an issue for Northern Ireland.
It is concerned with the governance of and relationship between Northern Ireland and Great Britain. Unionism and British identity[ edit ] Irish unionism is often centred on an identification with Protestantismespecially in the sense of Britishness,  although not necessarily to the exclusion of a sense of Irishness or of an affinity to Northern Ireland specifically.
Unionists believed in maintaining and deepening the relationship between the various nations of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. They expressed pride in symbols of Britishness. A key symbol for unionists is the Union Flag.
However, a significant number of Protestants have adhered to the nationalist cause, and likewise with Catholics and unionism.
These phenomena continue to exist in Northern Ireland. Both unionism and nationalism have had sectarian and anti-sectarian elements. After a decades-long ban, Catholics were once more permitted to join the UUP in the s   but their continued dearth, particularly among the leadership, meant the UUP were still vulnerable to accusations of sectarianism.
Only one Catholic, G. Neweserved in the Government of Northern Ireland Newe was specially recruited to boost cross-community relations in the last UUP government in the s. Terminology[ edit ] Unionists and loyalists[ edit ] People espousing unionist beliefs are sometimes referred to as loyalists.
The two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but the latter is more often associated with particularly hardline forms of unionism. In some cases it has been associated with individual or groups who support or engage in political violence.
Most unionists do not describe themselves as loyalists. In the Republic of Ireland, the republican tradition has moderated and moved into the mainstream.
To some extent, it can be traced back to the wars of religion, land, and power arising out of the 16th and 17th century Plantations of Ireland. In the 18th century, Ireland was ruled by a Protestant-only Irish Parliamentautonomous in some respects from Britain.
Catholics and Presbyterians were denied full political and economic rights under the Penal Laws. Origins of unionism in Ireland[ edit ] At the time of the Act of Union inthe Protestant community was divided over whether to support the Act.
The Union came in the aftermath of the Rebellionin which elements of Irish Protestants — particularly Presbyterians — had supported republican United Irishmen and others had been mobilised to defend the status quo in the Yeomanry and Orange Order.
The idea of Union was supported in Parliament by those whose main concern was security in the wake of the rebellion and the need for the 40, strong British military garrison to remain. It was opposed by two distinct groups.
Lord Castlereagh managed to tip the balance in favour of the Union by offering titles, land and in some cases cash payments to Parliamentarians. The Act was passed at the second attempt in However, what radically changed the balance of forces for and against the Union was Catholic Emancipation in This enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time since the s.
It now meant that an Irish Parliament, even one elected under strict property requirements, would have a majority of Catholic voters and potentially of Catholic representatives.
The Orange Order, by this stage committed to the Union, increased its membership to overby and "working class Protestants The British Conservative government eventually agreed to this in Octoberbanning a proposed mass meeting for Repeal at Clontarf, Dublin and deploying troops and a warship to prevent it.
The final challenge to the Union in this era was the Young Irelander Rebellion ofwhich largely failed to come off and was suppressed after minor military action. Home Rule[ edit ] The political union is symbolised by the Westminster Parliament "Home Rule" was the name given to the policy of establishing a devolved parliament to govern Ireland as an autonomous region within the United Kingdom.
Unionists comprised the opposition to Home Rule.How was nationalism in Italy a byproduct of Napoleonic interference? 4. Be able to explain "conservatism" and "liberalism" in the context of nationalism and cite examples of each variant of nationalism.
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Ph.D. Irish literature between nationalism and modernism (Student Work) Baldwin, Kara: Ph.D. 2. Introduction. Detroit: I Do Mind Dying. workers began to present a series of programs and revolutionary visions in sharp contrast to the ideas put forward by the New Detroit Committee.
Start studying APUSH FLASHCARDS AP TEST. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Conflict was based in the struggle between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament Politics characterized by support of .
In his books Primitive Classification (with Marcel Mauss) and The Elementary Form of the Religious Life, Emile Durkheim proposed just such a theory of the development of the conceptual structure of thought (though he in fact stopped short of applying it to modem science).