Dual Citizenship -- Loyal to Whom?
Polis Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greecealthough others see it as primarily a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws.
Polis meant both the political assembly of the city-state as well as the entire society. It can be argued that this growth of slavery was what made Greeks particularly conscious of the value of freedom.
After all, any Greek farmer might fall into debt and therefore might become a slave, at almost any time When the Greeks fought together, they fought in order to avoid being enslaved by warfare, to avoid being defeated by those who might take them into slavery.
And they also arranged their political institutions so as to remain free men.
Slavery permitted slaveowners to have substantial free time, and enabled participation in public life. Citizenship was not seen as a separate activity from the private life of the individual person, in the sense that there was not a distinction between public and private life.
The obligations of citizenship were deeply connected into one's everyday life in the polis.
These small-scale organic communities were generally seen as a new development in world history, in contrast to the established ancient civilizations of Egypt or Persia, or the hunter-gatherer bands elsewhere. From the viewpoint of the ancient Greeks, a person's public life was not separated from their private life, and Greeks did not distinguish between the two worlds according to the modern western conception.
The obligations of citizenship were deeply connected with everyday life. To be truly human, one had to be an active citizen to the community, which Aristotle famously expressed: This was not a problem because they all had a strong affinity with the polis; their own destiny and the destiny of the community were strongly linked.
Also, citizens of the polis saw obligations to the community as an opportunity to be virtuous, it was a source of honour and respect.
In Athens, citizens were both ruler and ruled, important political and judicial offices were rotated and all citizens had the right to speak and vote in the political assembly. Roman ideas[ edit ] In the Roman Empirecitizenship expanded from small-scale communities to the entire empire.
Romans realized that granting citizenship to people from all over the empire legitimized Roman rule over conquered areas. Roman citizenship was no longer a status of political agency, as it had been reduced to a judicial safeguard and the expression of rule and law.
The person was defined and represented through his actions upon things; in the course of time, the term property came to mean, first, the defining characteristic of a human or other being; second, the relation which a person had with a thing; and third, the thing defined as the possession of some person.
Pocock Roman citizenship reflected a struggle between the upper-class patrician interests against the lower-order working groups known as the plebeian class.
During this era, members of the nobility had a range of privileges above commoners see aristocracythough political upheavals and reforms, beginning most prominently with the French Revolutionabolished privileges and created an egalitarian concept of citizenship. Renaissance[ edit ] During the Renaissancepeople transitioned from being subjects of a king or queen to being citizens of a city and later to a nation.
Louis, in From until the mid-twentieth century, United States law used racial criteria to establish citizenship rights and regulate who was eligible to become a naturalized citizen. Sandfordwhich ruled that "a free negro of the African race, whose ancestors were brought to this country and sold as slaves, is not a 'citizen' within the meaning of the Constitution of the United States," and that "the special rights and immunities guarantied to citizens do not apply to them.
The 14th Amendment to the U. Constitutionratified on July 9,stated that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. The Chinese Exclusion Act explicitly denied naturalization rights to all people of Chinese origin, while subsequent acts passed by the US Congress, such as laws in, andwould include clauses that denied immigration and naturalization rights to people based on broadly defined racial categories.
United States and U. Bhagat Singh Thindwould later clarify the meaning of the phrase "free white persons," ruling that ethnically Japanese, Indian, and other non-European people were not "white persons", and were therefore ineligible for naturalization under U.
However, even well into the s some state laws prevented Native Americans from exercising their full rights as citizens, such as the right to vote.
InNew Mexico became the last state to enfranchise Native Americans. However, the act still contained restrictions regarding who was eligible for US citizenship, and retained a national quota system which limited the number of visas given to immigrants based on their national origin, to be fixed "at a rate of one-sixth of one percent of each nationality's population in the United States in ".
Soviet Union[ edit ] The constitution of revolutionary Russia granted citizenship to any foreigners who were living within Russia, so long as they were "engaged in work and [belonged] to the working class. National Socialism[ edit ] National Socialism or "Nazism", the German variant of twentieth century fascism whose precepts were laid out in Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampfclassified inhabitants of the nation into three main hierarchical categories, each of which would have different rights and duties in relation to the state: The first category, citizens, were to possess full civic rights and responsibilities.
Citizenship would be conferred only on males of German or so-called "Aryan" heritage who had completed military service, and could be revoked at any time by the state.
The Reich Citizenship Law of established racial criteria for citizenship in the German Reichand because of this law Jews and others who could not prove "German" racial heritage were stripped of their citizenship.
Subjects would have no voting rights, could not hold any position within the state, and possessed none of the other rights and civic responsibilities conferred on citizens. All women were to be conferred "subject" status upon birth, and could only obtain "citizen" status if they worked independently or if they married a German citizen see women in Nazi Germany.
The final category, aliens, referred to those who were citizens of another state, who also had no rights.The Commonwealth of Israel Two olive trees supply the oil for the menorah which is the the true emblem of Israel. The dual anointing of Messiah, our High Priest and the King of Salem is in the Order of Melchizedek.
Dear Sir: I am a survivor of the deliberate attack on the USS Liberty, June 8, during the Six Day War. I think dual citizenship has a lot to do with the reason that the surviving crew cannot get the U.S.
Government to look at our "War Crimes Report". Define citizenship. citizenship synonyms, citizenship pronunciation, citizenship translation, English dictionary definition of citizenship.
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