Full Answer Advocates of utilitarianism believe that all actions must seek to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. This applies even if an act harms an innocent person. For example, if a surgeon has the chance to save three lives by harvesting the organs of a healthy person, utilitarian theory suggests that harming the healthy person is acceptable to save a greater number of lives.
BP plc is one of the largest Oil and Alternative Energy companies in the world. It has set confident and meaningful targets with regard to reducing its CO2 emissions and development of alternative sources of energy such as solar power.
It is necessary to established whether ethical decisions and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR are based upon intentions, goals, outcomes; or, a mixture of each. Economic, Legal, Ethical, and Philanthropic.
These factors are demonstrated by the management in decisions, policies and actions. Therefore, can it be argued that BP is an ethical company?
Or can it be seen that these actions are simply the mask of an organisation whose only responsibility is to its shareholders and top management?
The Alaskan oil spills, Texas City refinery fire, treatment of Colombian farmers and the explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. Decisions were made, which ultimately lead to destructive consequences for many stakeholder groups.
The complex ethical dilemmas facing BP are thus: Crane and Matten provide the definition: Therefore, it could be argued that BP should: The results could provide a benefit for a great number of people over time.
Adopting this view, FDI host nations, customers and shareholders would benefit most, leading to greater levels of investment and higher revenues.
Thus, more investment can be made by BP to developing alternative energy sources creating a more sustainable future.
So exploitation of, and accidents regarding, small numbers of employees, the environment, and local communities can all be seen as blips, even calculated casualties, in the pursuit of a better world. Hence, Utilitarianism can be seen as a cost-benefit analysis to decision making.
Arguably, some suffering is acceptable if the pursuit of a more sustainable environment is the intended aim of the organisation. However, environmental destruction and human deaths would widely be considered unethical.
However, small reductions in emissions cannot counteract the exploitation of key stakeholders. Thus, ethical decisions are analysed on motivation, not intended outcome.
Kantian theory suggests that humans are rational, moral thinkers, with the propensity to act subjectively towards ethical dilemmas. Applying this to BP, suggests that those who are in charge of safety should ensure that their job has been completed thoroughly.
BP should not view the employees or environment as factors of production used to maximise profits for shareholders; suggesting that any reduction of safety is acting unethically and irresponsibly. Using the ethics of duties view, BP acts unethically and contradicts the image that it promotes by not fully considering the employees, environment and local communities; portraying their CSR and sustainability image to be a marketing gimmick.
As Kaler b ref Crane and Matten has proposed good business decisions consider a variety of perspectives and theoretical views and combine to attempt the best decision. Normative theories further complicate the dilemma, providing contradicting views on the policy.
Hence, an variety of ethical perspectives are needed to conclude whether actions that lead to the Texas City Fire, the Gulf of Mexico explosion and other events, were a result of conscious unethical decision making or unexpected and unfortunate casualties of good business practise in the pursuit of future global improvements.Deontology vs utilitarianism?
So far, as explained by @Deborah Poff, a criticism of utilitarianism is that it's not deontology and a criticism of deontology is that it's not utilitarianism.
So. The most prevalent theory of ethics used by students to justify plagiarism was deontology.2 who have stressed that the negative consequences to others are rutadeltambor.com Granitz and Dana Loewy on situational ethics and utilitarianism. students admitted that .
Juxtaposing Deontology and Utilitarianism Essay Nathan Whittingham Professor Mariana Philosophy 11 December Deontology Deontology is an ethical theory whose name is derived from the Greek word “deon,” meaning duty or obligation.
Keywords: moral psychology, psychometrics, utilitarianism, deontology, factor-analysis Introduction Utilitarianism is an ethical philosophy stating that aggregate welfare or “good” should be maximized and that suffering or “bad” should be minimized.
Utilitarianism vs Deontology Though people tend to consider the two terms Utilitarianism and Deontology as similar, there are certain differences between the two terms.
These are associated with morality. Apr 29, · A moral dilemma of a father with a sick child.