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The source document for this Digest states: Many of the responses designed with the conservation of biodiversity or ecosystem service as the primary goal will not be sustainable or sufficient unless indirect and direct drivers of change are addressed. Elimination of subsidies that promote excessive use of specific ecosystem services.
These subsidies lead to overproduction, reduce the profitability of agriculture in developing countries, and promote overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. Although removal of perverse subsidies will produce net benefits, it will not be without costs.
Some of the people benefiting from production subsidies through either the low prices of products that result from the subsidies or as direct recipients of subsidies are poor and would be harmed by their removal.
Compensatory mechanisms may be needed for these groups.
Moreover, removal of agricultural subsidies within the OECD would need to be accompanied by actions designed Globalization and ideal landscapes minimize adverse impacts on ecosystem services in developing countries. But the basic challenge remains that the current economic system relies fundamentally on economic growth that disregards its impact on natural resources.
Promotion of sustainable intensification of agriculture C4, C The expansion of agriculture will continue to be one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss well into Globalization and ideal landscapes twenty-first century.
In regions where agricultural expansion continues to be a large threat to biodiversity, the development, assessment, and diffusion of technologies that could increase the production of food per unit area sustainably, without harmful trade-offs related to excessive consumption of water or use of nutrients or pesticides, would significantly lessen pressure on biodiversity.
In many cases, appropriate technologies already exist that could be applied more widely, but countries lack the financial resources and intuitional capabilities to gain and use these technologies.
Where agriculture already dominates landscapesthe maintenance of biodiversity within these landscapes is an important component of total biodiversity conservation efforts, and, if managed appropriately, can also contribute to agricultural productivity and sustainability through the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides such as through pest control, pollination, soil fertility, protection of water courses against soil erosion, and the removal of excessive nutrients.
Slowing and adapting to climate change R By the end of the century, climate change and its impacts may be the dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss and change of ecosystem services globally. Harm to biodiversity will grow with both increasing rates in change in climate and increasing absolute amounts of change.
Given the inertia in the climate system, actions to facilitate the adaptation of biodiversity and ecosystems to climate change will be necessary to mitigate negative impacts.
These may include the development of ecological corridors or networks. Slowing the global growth in nutrient loading even while increasing fertilizer application in regions where crop yields are constrained by the lack of fertilizers, such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
Technologies already exist for reduction of nutrient pollution at reasonable costs, but new policies are needed for these tools to be applied on a sufficient scale to slow and ultimately reverse the increase in nutrient loading R9.
Correction of market failures and internalization of environmental externalities that lead to the degradation of ecosystem services R17, R10, R Because many ecosystem services are not traded in markets, markets fail to provide appropriate signals that might otherwise contribute to the efficient allocation and sustainable use of the services.
In addition, many of the harmful trade-offs and costs associated with the management of one ecosystem service are borne by others and so also do not weigh into decisions regarding the management of that service. In countries with supportive institutions in place, market-based tools can be used to correct some market failures and internalize externalities, particularly with respect to provisioning ecosystem services.
Increased transparency and accountability of government and private-sector performance in decisions that affect ecosystems, including through greater involvement of concerned stakeholders in decision-making RWGSG9. Laws, policies, institutions, and markets that have been shaped through public participation in decision-making are more likely to be effective and perceived as just.
Stakeholder participation also contributes to the decision-making process because it allows for a better understanding of impacts and vulnerabilitythe distribution of costs and benefits associated with trade-offs, and the identification of a broader range of response options that are available in a specific context.
And stakeholder involvement and transparency of decision-making can increase accountability and reduce corruption. Integration of biodiversity conservation strategies and responses within broader development planning frameworks.
For example, protected areas, restoration ecology, and markets for ecosystem services will have higher chances of success if these responses are reflected in the national development strategies or in poverty reduction strategies, in the case of many developing countries. Increased coordination among multilateral environmental agreements and between environmental agreements and other international economic and social institutions R International agreements are indispensable for addressing ecosystem-related concerns that span national boundaries, but numerous obstacles weaken their current effectiveness.
The limited, focused nature of the goals and mechanisms included in most bilateral and multilateral environmental treaties does not address the broader issue of ecosystem services and human well-being.
Steps are now being taken to increase coordination among these treaties, and this could help broaden the focus of the array of instruments.
However, coordination is also needed between the multilateral environmental agreements and the more politically powerful international legal institutions, such as economic and trade agreements, to ensure that they are not acting at cross-purposes.
Enhancement of human and institutional capacity for assessing the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and acting on such assessments RWG. Technical capacity for agriculture, forestry, and fisheries management is still limited in many countries, but it is vastly greater than the capacity for effective management for ecosystem services not derived from these sectors.
Addressing unsustainable consumption patterns RWG. Consumption of ecosystem services and nonrenewable resources affects biodiversity and ecosystems directly and indirectly. Total consumption is a factor of per capita consumption, populationand efficiency of resource use.
Slowing biodiversity loss requires that the combined effect of these factors be reduced.Another biodiverse and sustainable ideal landscape that has been recently hampered by the negative aspects of globalization are the Brazilian rain forests.
The economic pressures of the world’s corporations to find more land to encroach have seen the destruction of . This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.
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Biodiversity loss is driven by local, regional, and global factors, so responses are also needed at all scales.; Responses need to acknowledge multiple stakeholders with different needs.
Given certain conditions, many effective responses are available to address the issues identified.