The founder of the standardized testing system intended to create a uniform test to seek out the students who had the highest aptitude. Standardized tests have been used to allow higher education institutions to make a reliable decision on whether or not to accept certain students.
Basically, it seems Holland wants to do to Islam what has happened to Christianity over the past few centuries in the West: Though a fair number of traditionalist Christian believers exist, many people who say they are Christians are often quite aware of revisionist theories about their religion.
As the title indicates Moss challenges one of the foundational beliefs about the rise of early Christianity: Most educated Christians are probably vaguely aware that the four gospels were written between 70 AD and AD. Before the 19th century, most Christians did not even comprehend that their religion could be viewed in such a critical-rationalist manner.
Some apologists for Catholicism arguing against early scripturalist Reformers even pointed out inconsistencies within the Bible to illustrate the futility of sola scriptura.
But, Christians accepted their traditions and beliefs in a relatively innocent manner though the debunking of the Donation of Constantine occurred rather early. The vast majority of Muslims today are where Christians were several centuries ago. Even liberal Muslims, or atheists from a Muslim background, tend to accept the traditional view as the view which they reject piecemeal or in totality.
The story is a simple one. Muhammad founds a new monotheistic religion in pagan Arabia, and after his death in the tribes united in the faith explode out of their desolate peninsula. In these forces defeat both the Romans and the Persians.
One of the reasons that the Umayyads have a low reputation is that their interpretation of Islam was closely tied to their Arab tribal identity. Their religion was not quite the trans-ethnic one that would flourish under the Abbasids.
What is the revisionist story that Holland wants to tell? The outline is simple: Holland specifically seems to believe that Islam as a religious ideology that bounds together the Arab ruling class of the Umayyad domains crystallized during the reign of Abd al-Malik in the s AD.
This is fifty years after the death of Muhammed, and nearly four decades after the conquest of the Near East and Persia. There are is a lot more to what Holland believes went down. To get a good sense, watch his documentary on Youtube.
Do I believe it? The rise of Islam is a fundamentally material affair. There is no magic. That would come later with Sufi saints with miraculous powers.– Thesis: The founder of the standardized testing system intended to create a uniform test to seek out the students who had the highest aptitude.
Standardized tests have been used to allow higher education institutions to make a reliable decision on whether or not to accept certain students.
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